MMFC:Lists/Binding characteristics

From Manual - MMFC. Medieval Manuscripts in Flemish Collections

1 Different binding types

Binding types (both current and previous)
Term Definition Example
Cardboard boards The book block is protected by cardboard boards.
Wooden boards The book block is protected by wooden boards.
Limp binding The book block is protected by a cover made from supple material like leather, parchment or paper without internal reinforcement.
Stadsarchief Kortrijk, collectie Westflandrica, Pret 2.
Flap The upper or lower part of the cover is extended so that when closed, it flaps over the long edge of the book and the other part of the cover, offering more protection.
Rijksarchief te Leuven, Archief Oude Universiteit van Leuven, nr. 2474.
No cover The manuscript is sewn but the book block does not have a cover protecting it.
Rijksarchief te Leuven, Archief abdij van Sint-Geertrui te Leuven, nr. 10323.

2 Different types of cover titles

Cover title types
Term Definition Example
Fenestra A little "window" fastened on the back of the binding mentioning the contents of the manuscript on a piece of parchment covered by polished horn.
Brugge, Archief Grootseminarie Ten Duinen, Ms. 26/91.
Printed label A printed label fastened on the front and/or the back of the manuscript containing information on the nature or content of the manuscript. example of a printed label
Handwritten A handwritten label fastened on the front and/or the back of the manuscript containing information on the nature or content of the manuscript. example of a handwritten label
Tooled The title of the manuscript is incorporated in the decorative tooling of the book cover or consists of a separate tooled label that has been attached to the outside cover. example of a tooled label

3 Binding material locations

Binding material locations
Term Definition Example
Cover example of cover
Pastedown example of pastedown
Flyleaf example of flyleaf
Offset example of offset
Guard example of guard
Spine lining example of spine lining
Wrapper example of wrapper

4 Preservation of the binding: state of conservation

Binding Preservation States
Term Definition Example
No binding The manuscript's binding is inexistant or is missing. Example of no binding
Full binding The manuscript's binding covers the entire outer surface of the boards with a single material. example of full binding
Remnants Remnants of the binding are still present, but the manuscript does not have its complete binding anymore. example of remnants
Medieval fragments in binding The manuscript's binding contains fragments from its medieval binding or the manuscript still has a medieval binding that contains fragments of other manuscripts within the binding. Example of medieval fragments
Inapplicable example of inapplicable

5 Relative dates for the binding

Binding relative dates
Term Definition Example
Original binding The manuscript still has its original binding. example of original binding
Medieval binding The present binding of the manuscript was produced before 1600. This binding can be the original binding, but its originality can not be proven by datation or other information. example of medieval binding
Remnants of earlier binding The binding of the manuscript has been restored or renovated in the past, but parts of an earlier binding have been preserved in the present binding. example of remnants of earlier binding

6 Types of dicta probatoria

Types of dicta probatoria
Term Definition Example
Secundo folio A transcription of the first word or words on the recto side of the second folio of the manuscript. example of secundo folio
Final page A transcription of the first word or words on the recto side of the final folio of the manuscript. example of final page

7 Endpapers support type

Endpapers support type
Term Definition Example
Paper The endpapers (incl. pastedown and flyleaf) are made from medieval or modern paper
Papyrus The endpapers (incl. pastedown and flyleaf) are made from papyrus
Parchment, equalized The endpapers (incl. pastedown and flyleaf) are made from parchment. This could be virgin parchment or recycled parchment whose text has not been scraped off.
Parchment, palimpsest The endpapers (incl. pastedown and flyleaf) are made from parchment that was previously used in another manuscript and prepared for the reuse by scraping off the text.

8 Cover material

Cover material
Term Definition Example
Leather The boards of the book are covered with leather. Opposed to parchment, leather is mostly darker in color, ranging from a honey gold over mahogany brown to almost black.
Gent, Rijksarchief, Archief van de kerk van Assenede, Ass.113bis
Paper The manuscript has a binding in paper.
Parchment The boards of the book are covered with parchment. Important characteristics of a parchment binding cover is its brittle aspect especially at the edges, and the light color (dirty white to brownish beige)
Antwerpen, Bisschoppelijk Archief, K94
Textile The boards of the binding are covered with textile, often velvet.
Gent, Universiteitsbibliotheek, HS.0003

9 Binding decoration

Furniture (binding)
Term Definition Example
Blind tooling Decoration of the leather cover made by means of stamping the leather surface with heated tools such as rolls or panel stamps without the use of gold, ink or foil.
Brugge, Archief van het Grootseminarie Ten Duinen, Ms. 113/78
Gold tooling Decoration in the leather cover made by cutting and/or stamping the leather surface to create a decorative pattern that is afterwards gilded with gold leaf.
Parijs, BNF, Ms. Fr. 357
Fenestra A little "window" fastened on the back of the binding mentioning the contents of the manuscript on a piece of parchment covered by polished horn.
Brugge, Archief van het Grootseminarie Ten Duinen, Ms. 26/91
Clasps The original clasps to close the book are still present
Gent, Universiteitsbibliotheek, HS.BKT.006
Bosses Metal decorations on the front surface of the book binding, usually in the four corners, in the middle or in a decorative pattern.
Gent, Universiteitsbibliotheek, HS.BKT.006
Corner pieces Metal decorations on the edges of the corners to prevent damage on the corners of the book by tearing or usure.
Gent, Universiteitsbibliotheek, HS.0001
Label on back Any type of printed or handwritten label on the back of the binding
Ivory Any type of ivory decoration on the binding
Chain The chain that was used to fasten a book to the lectern as a 'liber catenatus'
Edge-gilded The edges of the pages have been gilded with gold paint.
Brugge, Archief Grootseminarie Ten Duinen, Ms. 113/78.