MMFC:Lists/Provenance evidence

From Manual - MMFC. Medieval Manuscripts in Flemish Collections

Provenance Marking Types

Provenance marking types
Term Definition Example
Ex-dono A written annotation in a manuscript recording the donation of the manuscript by or to a previous owner.
Baltimore, Walters Art Museum, W.439, fol. 71r

Book of hours of Adolph of Cleves, lord of Ravenstein, given to him by his wife Anne of Burgundy witness this inscription: "AB / votre mieulx aimee / Anne".

Ex-libris A written annotation and/or a drawing in a manuscript as proving a person's or institution's ownership.
Leuven, KU Leuven Bibliotheken, Bijzondere Collecties, Ms. 1379, fol. 1r. Ex-libris of Parc Abbey ('Liber sanctȩ Mariȩ Parchensis ȩcclesiȩ')
Supralibros A stamped or tooled sign of ownership on the cover, often a coat of arms.
Parijs, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Département des Manuscrits, Latin 7321A, Front cover.
Coat of arms of the French Valois kings on a manuscript originally owned by Louis de Bruges that was later bought by king Louis XII of France.
Pressmark A former pressmark that can be used to identify the library to which the manuscript formerly belonged. This includes pressmarks that have a particular format typical of a historical library, or pressmarks that can be matched against a reference to the manuscript in a surviving historical booklist or library catalogue.
Gent, University Library, HS.1376, fol. 1r. Medieval ownership inscription and pressmark ('O 4') of the Carthusian house of Sint-Maartensbos near Geraardsbergen.
Owner's heraldry The presence of a (previous) owner's coat of arms in the decoration or illumination of the manuscript.
Brugge, Archief van het Grootseminarie ten Duinen, Ms. 157/188, fol. 1r.
Coat of arms of Jan Crabbe, abbot of the Abbey of the Dunes between 1457 and 1488.
Owner's device The presence of a (previous) owner's device, or paraheraldic symbol, in a manuscript to prove his ownership.
Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Département des Manuscrits, Ms.fr. 9041, fol. 5v.
The barbican used by Anthony, bastard of Burgundy, as his device.
Owner's initials The presence of a (previous) owner's initials in a manuscript to prove his/hers/theirs ownership. Initials can take different forms: the initials of both first and surname or the initials of the first names in case of a married couple.
Brugge, Archief van het Grootseminarie Ten Duinen, Ms.157/188, fol. 1r
The initials of Jan Crabbe, abbot of the Abbey of the Dunes between 1457 and 1488, adorned with an abbot's staff.
Owner's motto The presence of a (previous) owner's motto as proof of his/hers ownership.
Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Département des Manuscrits, Ms. Fr. 9041, fol. 5v.
"Nul ne si frote", the motto of Anthony, bastard of Burgundy, used as an owner's mark in combination with his device.
Binding The manuscript's binding has characteristics that are typical for a particular historical library. This may include features of the tooling, the presence or style of a fenestra, or any other combination of features that indicate its earlier ownership. example of binding
Stamp The identity of a (previous) owner, be it a person or an institution, by using a stamp.
Brugge, Archief van het Grootseminarie Ten Duinen, Ms. 157/188, fol. 1r
Example of the so-called Dunes cross, the 17th century stamp used by the Abbey of the Dunes.
Cover label The cover of the manuscript contains a label that designates the identity of a (previous) owner. example of cover label
External source The provenance can be established using an external historical source. An example is when a manuscript can be matched to a description of an item in a medieval or early modern library catalogue.
Secondary source The provenance has been established in the secondary literature.
Other The evidence for the provenance does not match any of the above categories. This includes inscriptions that do not correspond to any of the above categories.
Gent, University Library, HS.0002, fol. 224r. Inscription recording the purchase of the manuscript by Raphael de Marcatellis: 'Hoc volumen comparavit Raphael de Marcatellis, Dei gratia Rosensis, abbas Sancti Bavonis iuxta Gandavum, anno Domini 1486.'
Transmission The manuscript has been transmitted as part of a historical collection, either a book collection or an archival collection. This includes fragments that have been recycled to serve as covers for archival documents.